The Elaphe™ L1500 in-wheel motor achieves the highest torque densities of electric motors on the market, generating 1500 Nm of torque without using any gears. These consist of 18 shocks, each measuring 100 g (in force) as well as 60 more shocks of 50 g each. To accurately predict and assess the motor components’ structural integrity requirements in the face of especially harsh road-induced loads, Elaphe used an SUV to simulate severe braking and cornering scenarios. “When you choose to design a dedicated, integrated inverter, you essentially ‘lock in’ the in-wheel motor’s specs, so any car using those wheels would need a lot of resources to be kept up to speed with developments in inverter technology,” Lampic concludes. This premium large-venue projector features native WUXGA performance with Epson® 4K Enhancement Technology1. The cost for Elaprase intravenous solution (2 mg/mL) is around $3,283 for a supply of 3 milliliters, depending on the pharmacy you visit. “As we see it, the expected trajectory of transistor advances is too fast to commit to one specific technology that we can confidently wrap our motors around,” Lampic says. Random vibration endurance is also tested, by combining a shaker table and a thermal chamber to apply vibrations at up to 2000 Hz and 40 g in force in the horizontal, vertical and axial directions. By running these load simulations in a generative design process (with a constant stiffness target and through a set of proprietary criteria functions), the numerical software can identify all the geometric qualities necessary for minimising structural stress across the metals of the stator and rotor (while also keeping it lightweight and taking manufacturing constraints into account where possible). At the top of Elaphe’s in-wheel propulsion product range is the L1500, a radial flux, three-phase AC synchronous motor weighing 33.3 kg, with a radius of 23.2 cm (and therefore fitting a standard 19 in rim) and an axial length of 14.22 cm. “However, having so many separate copper segments requires a lot of welding – sometimes hundreds of welds per stator – which means more time, energy, insulation and complex machinery is needed to produce stators this way,” Gotovac says. The selection of an adhesive for bonding the permanent magnets in their slots is tested and validated in a similar way to the structure of the rotor and stator. Like hairpin stator windings, these can be bent into shapes that forcibly pack the copper back into the ferromagnetic core and minimise the degree of overhang outside of it. CAD approximations of the L1500’s components are subjected to load impacts and combinations to identify how the housings and mechanical interfaces can reduce structural stress. Icona Nucleus will have an electric AWD drivetrain which is a 4 Elaphe L1500 in-wheel 110 kW motor in wheel producing 600 hp. First, the stiffness of the customer’s preferred bearing is characterised using Elaphe’s in-house numerical analysis software. Elaphe, headquartered in Europe, is a world leader in-wheel motor technology company and supplied the motors for the Nucleus. As a result, Elaphe’s development models encompass an extensive number of studies, simulations and tests, to iterate a motor that will withstand a broad spectrum of loads over its lifetime. The Elaphe™ M700 motor is an extremely compact high-torque in-wheel motor, designed to fit inside a standard 15- or 16-inch rim. In addition to being able to customise the in-wheel electric motor for carmakers’ preferred brake and bearing suppliers, the L1500’s performance and components can also be tailored to meet manufacturers’ application-specific requirements. Lordstown Motors licensed the L1500 in-wheel hub motor from Slovenian tech company Elaphe Propulsion Technologies. The liquid-cooling circuit constitutes the active cooling of the L1500. As a result, each customer’s motor can be customised to a degree to modify the rotor and stator interfaces to accommodate their preferences in peripheral components such as the brakes, bearings and other internal parts. As a result, the ‘active part’ of the motor – the electric machine with windings and magnets – takes up just 30% of the overall weight, giving it a torque density of 460 Nm/litre, compared with what the company cites as its nearest competitor at 390 Nm/ litre. Elaphe uses an SUV test vehicle to simulate severe braking and cornering scenarios, “At each stage of this approach, we have worked on the basis of analytical equations that have afforded us an insight into holistically optimising our motors’ designs and dimensions, to meet a broad envelope of performance and environmental requirements as well as other evaluation criteria.”. “In the early years of developing our in-wheel motor technologies, we used mainly N40UH magnets [which have a maximum working temperature of 180 C] in our prototypes in order to ensure good thermal performance,” Gotovac recalls. In addition to its in-house testing facilities, Elaphe also sometimes uses third-party testing facilities for more conventional or specialised tests, such as for vibration, shock, environmental IP rating and EMC. 1500 Nm peak, 650 Nm rated. Lordstone Motors ประกาศข้อตกลงร่วมกับ Elaphe Propulsion Technologies ในการผลิตรถกระบะ L-1500 Endurance ซึ่งติดตั้งมอเตอร์ไฟฟ้าไว้ที่ล้อ โดยจะเริ่มทำการผลิตที่โรงงานใน โอไฮโอ “In relative terms, far fewer wire connections need to be made, which improves consistency of quality, reliability and production costs. This rests on putting the bearing and the motor through cornering, endurance and durability tests (in accordance with SAE standards J328/2016-03 and J328/2005-2) to see how it sustains loads (reducing their transmission to the rest of the motor), and whether contact in the air gap occurs at any point. With over 700 Nm of peak torque, 75 kW of peak power and 50 kW of continuous power, this liquid-cooled motor is a perfect fit for a wide range of passenger car classes. Given the importance of torque density to an in-wheel motor, Elaphe has built the L1500 with an outrunner configuration, with the rotor directly driving the wheel as it rotates. “We knew from the outset that a lot of the technology we bought in for this vehicle will be obsolete by the time it … Direct-drive synchronous AC motor: Liquid cooled, compact, high-torque (1500 Nm) for electric vehicles. Castings and stampings: MWS and other, undisclosed suppliers, Braking components: APG and other, undisclosed suppliers, High Power Media Ltd, Whitfield House, Cheddar Road, Wedmore, BS28 4EJ UK /. Other proprietary innovations have been developed to help balance the voltages between parallel branches in each phase, to accelerate automated production of large volumes of copper (while packing them more densely), and to make the winding more robust against high temperature gradients – not just extremes of temperature, but rapid changes in short periods of time. The L1500 has been subjected to extensive tests and simulations. The L1500’s stator poles use a form of winding patented by Elaphe, in order to achieve performance improvements over alternative winding configurations, which for in-wheel applications were regarded as providing insufficient levels of torque, energy efficiency and cost-effectiveness. “In parallel with the high-torque requirement, we’ve constructed them in a way that avoids resonant frequencies when testing motors at very high speeds. As a B2B product, it is not intended for personal or single vehicle conversions. “The bearing is selected as a function of the wheel loads stemming from the vehicle’s weight, its CoG, wheelbase, track width and maximal lateral acceleration achieved during cornering. Rated speed: up to 1670 rpm with field weakening @370 VDC input voltage. Once these tests confirm that the motor components undergo no damage, and experience no statorrotor contact in the air gap (and that the bearing never overheats or reaches temperatures indicative of damage), the customer-preferred bearing can be integrated into the L1500. LM will build those motors in its Ohio plant, alongside the trucks that will use them. This changes the shape of the air gap, which causes vibrations as well as loss of effi ciency owing to the increasing resistance to magnetic fl ux between windings and magnets where the gap widens, and decreasing fl ux resistance where it shrinks. Rory Jackson reports on how it was developed Applications for the L1500 in-wheel motor include Sportscars (above), pick-up trucks, SUVs and urban vehicles (right), among others (Images courtesy of Elaphe Propulsion Technologies) Sl Find out all of the information about the Elaphe Propulsion Technologies Ltd. product: direct-drive wheel hub motor L1500. Many forms of wave winding also have overhangs that contribute to inefficiencies. Highlights in this issue include a dossier on the Elaphe L1500 in-wheel motor, a conversation with Henrik Fisker the founder of Fisker Inc and a digest on the vRbikes vR3 tricycle. Elaphe's high torque motors are based on a new electromagnetic topology, which enables all of the desired properties of an in-wheel electric motor. The equipment enables rapid iterations and confirmations of product designs, although the company also cooperates with various institutions around the world for impartial third-party validations and to complement its own efforts. Go to the Elaphe Propulsion Technologies Ltd. website for more information, See all Elaphe Propulsion Technologies Ltd. products. Elaphe's high-performance in-wheel motors are designed for integration in vehicles … Highlights in this issue include a dossier on the Elaphe L1500 in-wheel motor, a conversation with Henrik Fisker the founder of Fisker Inc and a digest on the vRbikes vR3 tricycle. In-wheel motors are subject to far more impacts and stresses over their lifetime than any e-axle motor, as they are constantly in almost direct contact with the road. They exclude delivery charges and customs duties and do not include additional charges for installation or activation options. The windings have been potted in Elaphe’s custom thermal transfer resins. That keeps them small in size and has some very positive effects in terms of reducing eddy-current losses and their overall mass relative to the magnetic flux.”, Neodymium is used for the L1500’s permanent magnets, a material selection which has also been motivated by the need for high torque density. Given this need to stay flexible for typical in-wheel motor customers, designing the motors around integrated inverters would have meant driving up design and component costs for each customer. AISIN Group Launching a $50 Million Automotive Fund Focused on Silicon Valley Technology. Elaphe has therefore developed a regime for validating the stiffness and durability of bearings before it will integrate them into the L1500 (or its other in-wheel motors). For example, an EV designer could choose to have a dual-inverter integration in a single housing, which could use a singleloop cooling system, share a single logic board, faster comms for full axle control, and so on,” Gotovac says. Contact a supplier or the parent company directly to get a quote or to find out a price or your closest point of sale. “These are pretty good diameter wheels, thin but big diameter,” Burns explains. These are issues that cannot be isolated to singular components or sections thereof. Being Elaphe’s largest and most powerful in-wheel motor yet, the project represented new territory for everyone involved. Once the L1500’s main components and their details are ironed out, holistic analysis of assembly-related loads are performed. As Lampic says, “We wanted to bring what we feel is required for improving future OEM EV/HEV models. Examples of these are thermomechanical stress due to excess heat from electromagnetic losses in the copper windings, steel laminations and permanent magnets, and frictional losses in the bearings and seals. It’s what we call our ‘multiphysics’ approach,” says Lampic. Having been filtered through the industrial designer’s guidelines, the stator and rotor designs are then evaluated (together with connected structural interfaces for a holistic motor simulation) using multiphysics fi nite element analysis (FEA) testing. 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