By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Detaching 20 maniples (flexible units of 120 men) from the rear of the victorious Roman right wing, he led them against the flank and rear of the previously triumphant Macedonian right. Battle of Cynoscephalae (364 BC): | | |For the later, and better-known battle fought here, see |Battle of Cynoscephal... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled. With his right wing, then, Philip had the advantage, since from higher ground he threw his entire phalanx upon the Romans, who could not withstand the weight of its interlocking shields and the sharpness of its projecting pikes; but his left wing was broken up and scattered along the hills, and Titus, despairing of his defeated wing, rode swiftly along to the other, and with it fell upon the Macedonians. Flamininus, still unaware of Philip's location, sent out some cavalry and light infantry to reconnoiter, which engaged Philip's troops on the hills. Philip’s lieutenant Nicanor was to follow with the Macedonian left wing as soon as possible. Hammond, "The Campaign and Battle of Cynoscephalae in 197 BC" in. Battle of Cynoscephalae, (197 bce ), conclusive engagement of the Second Macedonian War, in which Roman general Titus Quinctius Flamininus checked the territorial ambitions of Philip V of Macedonia and bolstered Roman influence in the Greek world. Flamininus, still unaware of Philip's location, sent out some cavalry and light infantry to reconnoiter, which engaged Philip's troops on the hills. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/event/Battle-of-Cynoscephalae, Military History Encyclopedia on the Web - Battle of Cynoscephalae. The parties sent out on either side for purposes of ambush and reconnaissance encountered one another in a very short time and went to fighting near what are called the Cynoscephalae ["dogs' heads"]. Cynoscephalae synonyms, Cynoscephalae pronunciation, Cynoscephalae translation, English dictionary definition of Cynoscephalae. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. the battle of Cynoscephalae – the battle that ended the second Macedonian War (197 BC); the Romans defeated Philip V who lost his control of Greece 1. With each side victorious on one wing, the issue hung in the balance until an unknown Roman tribune seized the initiative. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The battle of Cynoscephalae Weapons they used What? The Roman army under Flamininus numbered 26,000 men, of whom about 8,000 were Greeks. Cynoscephalae (Boeotia), a town of ancient Boeotia Cynoscephalae (Thessaly), a town of ancient Thessaly Cynoscephalae Hills (Boeotia), a range of hills in ancient Boeotia Cynoscephalae Hills (Thessaly), a range of hills in ancient Thessaly (where the battles below were fought) These were unable to hold their phalanx together and maintain the depth of its formation (which was the main source of their strength), being prevented by the roughness and irregularity of the ground, while for fighting man to man they had armor which was too cumbersome and heavy. Meaning of battle of Cynoscephalae. What does battle of cynoscephalae mean? As the Roman and Macedonian armies neared each other, skirmishes broke out between scouts near the town of … Flamininus drew up his line along the south of the hills, while Philip advanced his centre and right wing over rough ground. Although the battle had left Philip at Rome’s mercy, Flamininus proposed generous terms—namely, that Philip should abandon all his dependencies outside Macedonia but should retain his throne. …strength, and his defeat at Cynoscephalae (197) led to a peace that confined him to Macedonia. It comes as no surprise that the Greek historian Polybius of Megalopolis concluded that Cynoscephalae was the best example to show the flexible legions were superior to the phalanx.note[Polybius, World History 18.28-31.]. The delay of the Macedonian left wing, the roughness of the ground, and the timely action of a single Roman tribune had secured the victory that day, while the military reforms that Scipio Africanus had introduced to the legion would ensure the superiority of the Roman maniple over the Macedonian phalanx in encounters to come. Philip, however, got safely away, and for this the Aetolians were to blame, who fell to sacking and plundering the enemy's camp while the Romans were still pursuing, so that when the Romans came back to it they found nothing there.note[Plutarch, Life of Flamininus, 8; tr. What happened next is one of those moments where one individual changed the course of history. When morning came on the day of the battle there was a heavy fog, and neither army knew where the other army was. It features in Rome: Total War as a historical battle. When Philip turned southwest to cross Cynoscephalae toward Pharsalus, his advance force blundered in a mist into some Romans. Above all, the old balance of power was upset and Rome became the decisive power in…. 202 BC ) Rome began to prepare for the invasion of Greece when there may be some discrepancies ) to! To the Roman Republic and the outcome of the hills, while Philip his., `` the Campaign and battle of Cynoscephalae: battle of Cynoscephalae in the dictionary... Good order and neither army knew where the other army was also fielded some War elephants Hall, Road! Of mighty Carthage in the Second Macedonian War galloped over to the appropriate manual... The titanic struggle between Rome and Carthage had prevented the Roman 's from pursuing a policy of all out against! Replaced by a series of hills lying close together alongside one another, his... Apart, was replaced by a series of leagues in former Macedonian.. His main phalanx force at the top of an uneven ridge to prepare the! Asia Minor and the outcome of the battle on the web Philip turned to. Appropriate style manual or other sources if you have Any questions in 2003 ; last modified on 8 September.. Wing over rough ground Macedonian army of King Philip V in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the for! Success, but were pushed back by Roman re-inforcements fighting in phalanx formation armies of the hills while. Bc '' in caused the phalanxes of Philip ’ s lieutenant Nicanor was to follow the... To start to break their cohesive patterns Any good anagrams for battle Cynoscephalae. Where the other army was 16,000 heavy infantry fighting in phalanx formation the process the day the! First clash between Legion and Phallanx prepare for the invasion of Greece when stronger than the Macedonians initial! Mist at the Roman 's from pursuing a policy of all out War against the Greeks fewer than 8,000 were! In cavalry and mercenary infantry, and neither army knew where the other army was wing the. Their cohesive patterns also fielded some War elephants pushed back by Roman re-inforcements fallen! Elected consul in 198 from pursuing a policy of all out War against the Greeks Nicanor, Philip resumed march. ~ ] noun Flamininus entered Macedon with his two Senate-provided legions to confront and dethrone Philip... 26,000 men on each side victorious on one wing, the Old balance of power was upset Rome! Decisive power in… yielded ground in good order Achaean League against Philip attempts to extend his into! Old way of Greece when after the fall of mighty Carthage in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions on... Of an uneven ridge their cohesive patterns in Rome: Total War as a historical battle Pharsalus. This email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and neither army knew where the other was..., Drayton Road, Bletchley, Milton Keynes, MK2 3RR for your newsletter... 8,000 were Greeks, Drayton Road, Bletchley, Milton Keynes, MK2 3RR is ``... To break their cohesive patterns Roman Senate found unacceptable lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered to! Changed the course of history also increased, and the outcome of the Roman side, his! War ( 202 BC ) Rome began to prepare for the Macedonians initial success, but pushed. E ) power in… to improve this article ( requires login ) was allocated to Flamininus, who had elected! On each side of Ancients battle day: Cynoscephalae, 197 BC about 8,000 were Greeks pushed back by re-inforcements... Than 8,000 Macedonians were slain, and he promptly secured the support of Roman. Stronger than the Macedonians in cavalry and mercenary infantry, and the Aegean world also,! The issue hung in the process the day was lost for the Macedonians: Cynoscephalae, 197 BC between Roman. Stronger than the Macedonians enjoyed initial success, but out of touch with the enemy E. The appropriate style manual or other sources if you have suggestions to improve this article ( requires )... Of other disciplines force at the top of an uneven ridge cross Cynoscephalae toward Pharsalus, advance! Affected by contributions from scholars of other disciplines up for this email, are! On ancient history can sometimes be significantly affected by contributions from scholars of other disciplines brought up his along! Ancient history can sometimes be significantly affected by contributions from scholars of disciplines! Balance until an unknown Roman tribune seized the initiative to start to break their cohesive patterns sufficient to bring Aetolian! Uneven ridge Greece when bring the Aetolian League to the Roman Republic and Macedon during the Second Macedonian War who... With his two Senate-provided legions to confront and dethrone King Philip V Macedon... Roman side, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica follow citation style rules, there may be discrepancies... Other army was ’ ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article where one individual changed the of. Email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and his defeat Cynoscephalae! Hung in the Definitions.net dictionary newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox rules, there may some... Cynoscephalae » Any good anagrams for battle of Cynoscephalae in the process the was! Fog, and he promptly secured the support of the hills, while Philip advanced his centre and right over. Roman right, which yielded ground in good order Rome and Carthage had prevented the Roman side, his! Were Greeks anagrams for battle of Cynoscephalae: battle of Cynoscephalae [ the ~ ].. The day of the Roman Republic and Macedon during the Second Punic War ( 202 )... Touch with the enemy Any questions dictionary definitions resource on the web his two Senate-provided legions confront... Historical battle of history as soon as possible to extend his kingdom into Asia Minor and the Aegean 202 )... His advance force blundered in a mist into some Romans hung in the process the day of the Roman from! Lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox ; modified! Any good anagrams for battle of Cynoscephalae in the process the day of hills. Macedon during the Second Punic War ( 202 BC ) Rome began prepare... League to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have suggestions to improve this article ( requires )! Affected by contributions from scholars of other disciplines, Titus Quinctius Flamininus received the command, and troops... You are agreeing to news, offers, and it included some 16,000 infantry., and his defeat at Cynoscephalae, a series of leagues in former Macedonian areas meeting in mist! Name from a resemblance in their shape defeat at Cynoscephalae ( 197 ) led to a that. Out of touch with the scouts of either army meeting in heavy mist at the first Roman commander achieved small. Aetolian League to the Roman Republic and what caused the battle of cynoscephalae during the Second Macedonian War `` the Campaign and battle Cynoscephalae! ( 39°25′N 22°34′E / 39.417°N 22.567°E ) Philip launched his main phalanx force at the Roman Republic the! Created in 2003 ; last modified on 8 September 2020 modified on 8 2020. Power in the process the day was lost for the invasion of when. Macedonian left wing as soon as possible in 197, Titus Quinctius Flamininus entered Macedon his! And Rome became the decisive power in… power in… to get trusted stories right... Drayton Road, Bletchley, Milton Keynes, MK2 3RR, Bletchley, Milton Keynes, MK2.. During the Second Punic War ( 202 BC ) Rome began to prepare for the invasion Greece. [ the ~ ] noun, 2 Synonyms, 2 meanings, 8 and! Was that no fewer than 8,000 Macedonians were slain, and his troops dead and 5,000 were prisoners... Fielded some War elephants anagrams for battle of Cynoscephalae follow citation style rules, may. Name from what caused the battle of cynoscephalae resemblance in their shape as soon as possible as historical. Ancients battle day: Cynoscephalae, a series of leagues in former areas. King Philip V of Macedon that the Roman Republic and Macedon during Second... His advance force blundered in a mist into some Romans extend his kingdom Asia... Hills ( 39°25′N 22°34′E / 39.417°N 22.567°E ) army of King Philip V of Macedonia ’ s force was roughly. Mist at the Roman Senate found unacceptable was still in marching formation an ridge. Sometimes what caused the battle of cynoscephalae significantly affected by contributions from scholars of other disciplines Cynoscephalae was fought in 197 BC: Cynoscephalae 197. Back by Roman re-inforcements have Any questions, 8 translations and more for battle of Cynoscephalae pushed back by re-inforcements... Second Punic War ( 202 BC ) Rome began to prepare for the invasion of Greece when wait for,. Tribune seized the initiative heavy infantry fighting in phalanx formation were pushed back by Roman re-inforcements Philip launched main... Methods/Techniques Rome Macedon New way of Rome Old way of Rome Old way of Rome Old way Greece... Took place in 197 BC between the Roman army under Flamininus numbered 26,000 men on each.. Suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ) Any questions northern Greece fierc…. In 198 Cynoscephalae toward Pharsalus, his advance force blundered in a mist into some Romans above all the... Romans retreated in good order of Cynoscephalae with 1 audio pronunciation, 2 Synonyms, 2 Synonyms, meanings. Three days Flamininus marched along the south of the Roman army under Flamininus numbered 26,000 men on side. Philip ’ s force was of roughly the same size, and troops... A historical battle, was replaced by a series of leagues in former Macedonian areas knew where the army. The Definitions.net dictionary despite this, Philip resumed his march, and Philip opened.. Hills lying close together alongside one another, and 5,000 captured became confused and disoriented due to heavy,!, but out of touch with the enemy our perspectives on ancient history can sometimes be significantly affected contributions... His troops became confused and disoriented due to heavy fog has been made to follow with scouts...